Learning Lab's Posts

Style Points: Augmented Reality and the Tailored Learning Experience

In case you missed the memo, the next wave of the Digital Revolution – in the form of immersive computing – is rapidly approaching the shores of higher ed, and with it, one of the greatest opportunities to transform learning in a generation.

Surfing along the crest of this radical wave of new technologies is augmented reality (AR). Sometimes referred to as “blended reality,” it allows users to experience the real world, printed text, or even a classroom lesson with an overlay of additional 3D data content, amplifying access to instant information and bringing it to life; in turn, bringing thrilling new opportunities for experiential education.

Perhaps more importantly, AR has the potential to democratize learning and tailor visual or data displays to fit a wide range of individual cognitive strengths. Augmented-reality apps and wearables enable access to rich, immersive educational experiences, and have the potential to differentiate instruction by catering to the specific learning needs and styles of an increasingly diverse student population. Because, let’s face it – many educators on the ground have already realized that a one-size-fits-all approach to curricular material does not always lead to strong learning outcomes.

Learning in Style

A better understanding of what differentiated learning means, in and of itself, may be helpful for developing lesson plans and instructional materials that meet the needs of individual students. Delving into the concept of “learning styles,” for one, can drive home the point that different students perceive and interact differently to information within their learning environment and, therefore, have varying preferences and necessities in terms of how they’re taught. (However, I should note that research on learning styles is an area of study that continues to evolve, so there is no definitive consensus on how to address this increasingly relevant issue in education as of this writing.)

To illustrate how AR can provide various entry points to learning, let’s discuss a few examples of learning preferences that researchers have identified, along with potential AR experiences that could speak to those learning styles.

Visual Learners

Many students learn best when they’re able to access visual rather than verbal information. Whereas classroom materials that integrate visuals might include presentation slides, textbooks, handouts and the like, AR takes visuals to the next level. Augmented Chemistry, a tangible user interface (TUI), is an example of the visual affordances of AR. Using TUI, chemistry students can pick up virtual atoms, position them to compose molecules, and rotate the 3D molecule to view it from all angles.  Compare this learning experience to the use of traditional textbooks consisting of 2D images that can’t be manipulated – the latter now seems pretty, well, flat in comparison, no?

Kinesthetic Learners

Kinesthetic learners respond well to physically engaging exercises, which place-based or location-based AR can offer in spades. Geological positioning systems (GPS) within place- or location-based AR systems give users access to relevant information as they arrive at a location, requiring them to physically move within an environment to complete tasks. AR provides kinesthetic learning opportunities, too, by allowing users to use bodily motions to manipulate virtual objects.

Social, Field-Dependent, and Application-Directed Learners

Researchers have also identified a learning-styles dimension that emphasizes the social aspect of learning. To wit, some learners desire interaction with others as a means of co-constructing knowledge. In addition to a preference for interacting with others, field-dependent learners rely on an external frame of reference (which may be provided by other learners); and then there are application-directed learners, who mainly prefer concrete applications of subject matter. Through leveraging connected learning and providing a virtual platform for social activity, AR has the potential to meet the needs of such learners.   

For example, in Environmental Detectives – an augmented-reality simulation game – users role-play environmental scientists. Players move about in a real space while being provided with location-specific information. They interview non-players to gather info, and they’re able to beam data to one another. Such a game incorporates social aspects of learning while also accommodating users who learn by interacting with an external frame of reference, as well as those learners who benefit from concretely applying their knowledge in a scenario.

Wave of the Future

With so many possibilities and applications, AR could truly be a game-changer in education. It allows for dynamic instruction that can’t be accomplished through traditional classroom experiences (without, of course, replacing the classroom altogether). Think of it as a powerful supplemental learning tool with the awesome ability to reach every style of student.

So join the Learning Lab team as we continue this journey and further explore the exciting realm of unprecedented opportunities AR presents us with here in higher ed. Together, we’ll face this new wave of immersive technology with open arms, encouraging educators to push the boundaries of teaching and, ultimately, the very boundaries of learning itself.

This blog post, written by Learning Lab Project Delivery Manager Lan Ngo, is the first in a series of posts that will explore AR technology and its applications in education. If you would like to add to this conversation, please leave a comment!

Learning Lab = World-Class Games for a Global University

Learning Lab Technical Dir. Sarah Toms (center) stands with students she guided through the Executive Development Program (EDP) sim in Thailand last year.

What do the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, the IE Business School in Madrid, HEC Paris, and Dubai’s S P Jain School of Global Management all have in common with Wharton? Well, besides being among the Financial Timestop-ranked MBA programs in 2017, they all use simulation games developed right here in the Learning Lab.

And they’re not alone. Around the globe, from the Grandes Écoles (“Grand Schools”) of France to top universities in Copenhagan, Australia, India and dozens of other countries, there are thousands of students applying their burgeoning business acumen to The Startup Game and OPEQ — two of our best-selling sims available through Harvard Business Publishing (HBP), which recently issued a report detailing worldwide distribution of both games in 2016.

Their popularity in Wharton entrepreneurship and negotiation classes notwithstanding, the HBP report is a noteworthy success for our team in that it illustrates the symbiotic synergy between the goals of the Learning Lab and those of the University at large.

The former reflects the expressed intentions of our namesake, Alfred West Jr., who gifted the School with $10 million in 2001 to establish a veritable laboratory for creating “innovative learning tools that challenge students to think strategically across business functions and organizations” and enable Wharton to “take a lead role in rethinking the learning paradigm.” Nearly two decades later, the Learning Lab’s historic mission is increasingly central to President Amy Gutmann’s own vision for the future of the University of Pennsylvania.

According to Gutmann, “Our commitment to global engagement is essential to what I call ‘educational diplomacy. Now more than ever, we are bringing Penn to the world and the world to Penn. And in doing so, we are building stronger cross-cultural connections, deeper relationships, and mutual understanding within the global community.”

Wharton Dean Geoffrey Garrett in Seoul during his “Global Conversations Tour,” where he shared his vision for the School.

Sharing an ethos that embraces collaboration and the exchange of knowledge is Wharton Dean Geoffrey Garrett. “Globalization and technological change are poised to transform business education. I have no doubt Wharton will be in the vanguard of this transformation here and in other countries,” he stated upon taking over the position in 2014.

The School’s Executive Education division has helped draw an international audience as well, partnering with the Learning Lab to build custom learning experiences for foreign audiences both on-campus and abroad.

In 2016 alone, more than 1,000 participants experienced one of our simulations in their Wharton Exec Ed program. One of Africa’s foremost financial institutions, for example, has sent over managerial staffers for a two-week business-leadership bootcamp built around the EDP Simulation four times in the last two years! (And it always ends the same: with a celebratory, fist-pumping “warrior chant.” See it in the video below.) Among dozens of other games to cheer for, I should note, we developed a similar EDP program for a multi-national manufacturer in Thailand, which Technical Director extraordinaire Sarah Toms flew out to personally facilitate in 2016.

From the start, Dean Garrett has made it known that, though seated in the U.S., he sees Wharton as an asset to the entire world — and, in turn, bringing the world into the classroom in order to prepare students to be truly global leaders.

Whether that classroom is in Singapore, Saudi Arabia, Switzerland or Estonia, Learning Lab sims like OPEQThe Startup Game, and EDP are doing just that, augmenting traditional learning in undergraduate, MBA, and executive education programs with dynamic, virtual “real-life” business experiences. And while they may be created with faculty members here in Philadelphia, they are now driving home their educational underpinnings on campuses around the globe.

Monopoly’s Anti-Capitalist, Socialist Roots as a Teaching Game at Wharton

Monopoly board game

“A virtue of gaming that is sometimes overlooked by those seeking grander goals is its unparalleled advantages in training and educational programs. A game can easily be made fascinating enough to put over the dullest facts. To sit down and play through a game is to be convinced as by no argument, however persuasively presented.”

— A.M. Mood, RAND Corporation (1954)

Look no further than the Learning Lab for proof that games play an increasingly valuable role in the classroom and beyond, having long been recognized as a uniquely effective means of experiential education. But while, today, we harness technology and data to craft immersive, competitive simulation platforms, sometimes all you need to teach complex concepts is a board, some moveable pieces, and a pedagogical goal.

Take chess, for instance, which has been used for centuries to impart lessons of military strategy – its rules and competitive purpose create the conditions for tactical thinking and planning needed to checkmate one’s opponent.

Then there’s Monopoly, wherein the primary objective is to bankrupt everyone else through clever investment strategies. Hard to square that with lofty, Ivy-league business objectives, right? Yet, what is arguably the world’s best-selling board-based simulation of capitalism (and frequent ruiner of family game night) was once used as a teaching aid in Wharton economics classes. But before you cynically smirk at the very idea, there’s something you should know about the game’s hidden history: A century ago, Monopoly was not a platform to illustrate the merits of a laissez-faire system; rather, it was a way to demonstrate an alternative to the corporate rent-seeking that drives inequality.

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Bringing Customer Centricity to Life (and Biz Models to Black)

customercen_photo_bookIf you’ve ever sat through one of Wharton marketing professor Peter Fader’s highly engaging lectures on the merits of a customer-centric business model (or read his book on the subject), then you know how quickly he’s able to convince an audience that adopting this game-changing go-to-market strategy can trump a product-focused approach (from a profitability standpoint), and that – if done well – can create the conditions for longterm viability in the perilous, race-to-the-bottom age of commoditization that many companies are grappling with these days.

He’ll also handily disabuse any naysaying marketing execs of the notion that using data is just about collecting numbers, driving the point home that simply having a CRM system in place is not where the work ends, it’s where it begins – and leaving no doubt in their minds that if they think all customers are created equal, they have a lot to learn. Indeed, Fader is a maestro at shifting paradigms to embrace the power of data analytics for calculating customer lifetime value (CLV). But for this revolution in marketing strategy to truly take hold, theory must meet practice – and that’s where the Learning Lab comes into play.

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